Gilashin gilashi da nazarin abu

Asalin gilashin an samo shi ne daga ƙaƙƙarfan duwatsu masu guba waɗanda aka fitar daga dutsen mai fitad da wuta. Game da 3700 BC, tsoffin Masarawa sun yi kayan ado na gilashi da gilasai masu sauƙi. A wancan lokacin, gilashin launuka ne kawai. Game da 1000 BC, China ta yi gilashi marar launi. A cikin karni na 12 AD, gilashin kasuwanci ya bayyana kuma ya fara zama kayan masana'antu. A cikin karni na 18, don biyan bukatun samar da madubin hangen nesa, an samar da gilashin gani. A cikin 1873, Belgium ta fara samar da gilashin lebur. A cikin 1906, Amurka ta samar da gilashin lebur wanda zai kai ga injin. Tun daga wannan lokacin, tare da masana'antar masana'antu da kuma samar da manyan gilashi, gilashin amfani iri-iri da kaddarorin daban daban ya fito ɗaya bayan ɗaya. A wannan zamani, gilashi ya zama muhimmin abu a rayuwar yau da kullun, samarwa, da kimiyya da fasaha.

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Nau'in gilashi yawanci ana raba shi zuwa gilashin oxide da gilashin da ba oxide ba bisa ga manyan abubuwan da aka gyara. Akwai nau'ikan nau'ikan da yawa na gilashin da ba oxide ba, galibi gilashin chalcogenide da gilashin halide. Fuskokin gilashin chalcogenide yawanci sune sulfur, selenium, tellurium, da sauransu, waɗanda zasu iya yanke haske na gajeren zango kuma su wuce rawaya, haske mai haske, da kuma kusa da nesa infrared light. Yana da ƙarancin juriya kuma yana da sauyawa da abubuwan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya. Gilashin Halide yana da ƙarancin haske mai ƙyama da ƙananan watsawa, kuma galibi ana amfani dashi azaman gilashi mai gani.

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Girman gilashin Oxide ya kasu kashi biyu cikin gilashin siliki, gilashin borate, gilashin fosfat da sauransu. Gilashin siliki yana nufin gilashin wanda asalin abin shine SiO 2, wanda ke da nau'ikan da yawa da aikace-aikace masu faɗi. Yawanci gwargwadon abubuwan da ke cikin SiO 2 da alkali metal da alkaline metal metal oxides a cikin gilashin, ana raba shi: glass Quartz glass. SiO 2 abun ciki ya fi 99.5%, ƙananan haɓakar haɓakar thermal, haɓakar zafin jiki mai ƙarfi, kwanciyar hankali mai kyau na sinadarai, hasken ultraviolet da watsawar infrared, babban zafin jiki mai narkewa, haɓakar danko, da ƙira mai wuya. Ana amfani dashi mafi yawa a cikin semiconductors, tushen hasken wutar lantarki, sadarwar gani, lasers da sauran fasahohi da kayan aikin gani. ② Babban gilashin silica Abun cikin SiO 2 yana kusan 96%, kuma dukiyar sa tayi kama da ta gilashin ma'adini. Glass Gilashin lemun tsami na Soda. Ya ƙunshi SiO 2 kuma ya ƙunshi 15% Na 2 O da 16% CaO. Yana da ƙarancin farashi, mai sauƙin fasali, mai dacewa don samar da sikelin girma, kuma abubuwan fitarwa na asusun 90% na gilashi mai amfani. Yana iya samar da gilashin gilashi, gilashi mai faɗi, kayan aiki, kwararan fitila, da sauransu ④ Gubar gilashin siliki. Babban abubuwan da aka gyara sune SiO 2 da PbO, wadanda suke da matattarar ruwa mai karfin gaske da kuma karfin juriya, kuma suna da kyau tare da karafa. Ana iya amfani da su don yin kwararan fitila, mai tushe bututu, gilashin karafa, gilashin gilashi, da sauransu. Gubar gilashi mai ɗauke da adadi mai yawa na PbO na iya toshe hasken rana da γ-rays. Glass Gilashin aluminosilicate Tare da SiO 2 da Al 2 O 3 a matsayin manyan abubuwan haɗin, yana da zafin jiki mai laushi mai girma kuma ana amfani dashi don yin kwararan fitila, fitarwa na zafin jiki na zazzabi mai ƙarfi, bututun ƙone sinadarai da zaren gilashi. Glass Gilashin gilashi Tare da SiO 2 da B 2 O 3 a matsayin manyan abubuwan haɗin, yana da kyakkyawan juriya mai zafi da kwanciyar hankali na sinadarai. Ana amfani dashi don yin kayan girki, kayan kabu-kabu, gilashin walda na karfe, da dai sauransu. Gilashin Borate galibi an hada shi da B 2 O 3, yana da zafin jiki mai narkewa kadan, kuma yana iya tsayayya da lalata ta hanyar tururin sodium. Gilashin gilashi mai ɗauke da abubuwa masu ƙarancin ƙasa yana da ƙididdigar ƙarancin haske da ƙananan watsawa. Yana da wani sabon nau'in gilashi mai gani. Gilashin fosfat yana amfani da P 2 O 5 a matsayin babban ɓangaren, yana da ƙarancin ƙyamar juzu'i da ƙananan watsawa, kuma ana amfani dashi a cikin kayan aikin gani.

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Bugu da kari, gilashi ya kasu cikin gilashin da aka toka, gilashin da ba shi da nauyi (watau gilashin kumfa, mai girman kusan 40, ana amfani da shi ne don tsabtace ruwan teku, tace kwayar cuta, da sauransu) gwargwadon halaye na aiki, gilashin sarrafawa (wanda aka yi amfani da shi azaman lantarki da jirgin sama Gilashin gilashi), gilashin-gilashi, gilashin Opal (ana amfani dashi don na'urorin haske da abubuwa masu ado, da dai sauransu) da gilashi mara kyau (ana amfani dashi azaman ƙofar da gilashin taga), da dai sauransu.

Tsarin sarrafawa Babban kayan albarkatun don samarda gilashi sune jikin gilashi, gyaran gilashi da matsakaiciyar gilashi, sauran kuma albarkatun kasa ne masu taimako. Babban kayan albarkatun kasa suna magana ne game da sinadarin oxides da aka gabatar a cikin gilashin don samar da hanyar sadarwar, matsakaiciyar oxides da kashe-network oxides; karin albarkatun kasa sun hada da masu bayyanawa, garambawul, feshin opacifiers, launuka, kayan kwalliya, sinadarai masu rage kuzari da kuma rage kayan aiki.

Tsarin samar da gilashi yafi hadawa: ①Pre-sarrafa kayan albarkatun kasa. Ana murƙushe kayan ɗanɗano, an busar da ɗanyen kayan, kuma ana sarrafa kayan ƙanshin ƙarfe don cire ƙarfe don tabbatar da ingancin gilashin. Para Shirye-shiryen kayan aiki. ③ Yin narkar da shi. Ana ɗora kayan aikin gilashi a babban zazzabi a murhunan tanki ko murhun dusar ƙanƙara don samar da daidaitattun, gilashin ruwa mara kumfa wanda ya cika buƙatun gyare-gyaren. OrCi abinci. Gudanar da gilashin ruwa cikin kayan siffofin da ake buƙata, kamar faranti masu faɗi, kayan aiki daban-daban, da dai sauransu. Ta hanyar sanya ruwa, kashewa da sauran matakai, damuwar cikin gida, rabuwa ta lokaci ko kiris na gilashin za a iya kawar da shi ko samar da shi, kuma ana iya canza yanayin fasalin gilashin.


Post lokaci: Jun-03-2019